Characteristics of topographic submesoscale eddies off the Crimea coast from high-resolution satellite optical measurements  id статьи: 910
статья в журнале
Long-term arrays of satellite optical measurements of Landsat-5,7,8 and Sentinel-2 were used to describe the characteristics of submesoscale eddy (SE) dynamics in different parts of the Crimean coast: their geometric and kinematic characteristics, the main sites and mechanisms of formation, and impact on the redistribution of suspended matter. The dynamic characteristics of SE were computed on the base of the 4D variational assimilation method from the pair of consecutive Landsat-8/Sentinel-2 images. The orbital velocity of submesoscale cyclonic eddies (SCE) with a diameter of 1 km reaches 0.15 m/s, indicating the cyclostrophic balance with a high Rossby number (RO) exceeding 2. Submesoscale cyclones were detected much more frequently than the usually larger submesoscale anticyclones. High-resolution satellite imagery gives a possibility to observe complex submesoscale dynamic processes, such as the generation of chains of SCE, large cyclones behind the capes consisting of densely packed arrays of SCEs, topographic submesoscale anticyclones with a number of attached SCEs, mushroom-like current structures, and frontal SE. Despite the diversity of the processes considered, several basic mechanisms of formation of submesoscale eddies can be identified on the basis of satellite data: (1) Separation of the boundary current, often wind-driven, behind the capes; (2) barotropic instability due to the horizontal shear on the coastal periphery of mesoscale anticyclones or alongshore currents; (3) formation of the mushroom-like structure due to the interaction of offshore currents with deep waters near the capes or due to offshore winds; and (4) frontal instabilities on the coastal upwelling. The results of the analysis were used to create a scheme of the spatial variability of submesoscale processes near the Crimean coast and compare it to the results of the high-resolution modeling. The model was able to describe the main areas of SE formation, which was located near the major capes. It provides additional data about SE generation near the rocky capes of the South Crimea, where satellite data was limited by the absence of optical tracers.
ubmesoscale processe, ubmesoscale eddies, ddy formatio, oastal dynamic, uspended matte, igh-resolution optical imager, andsa, entinel-2, he Crime
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